FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS (FDI)
The Foreign Investments Information System
Starting with the Third Quarter 2012 Report, foreign investments approved and registered by the investment promotion agencies (IPAs) is termed “approved foreign investments,” replacing the term “approved foreign direct investments” used in the previous reports. This is to distinguish clearly, the approved foreign investments which are only commitments and pledges from the foreign direct investments (FDI), which are actual investments being released in the Balance of Payments by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.
Except for this change, all the other aspects in the report as indicated in the previous technical notes below remain the same.
1. One of the objectives of the FIIS is to develop a system that is comparable internationally. As such, the Philippine FIIS is adopting the International Monetary Fund (IMF) concept of Foreign Direct Investments as described in the Fifth Edition of the Balance of Payments (BOP) Manual, in all of its components, i.e., the Register, the Annual FDI Reporting System and the Consolidated Quarterly Reporting System.
2. Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) as defined in the BOP Manual, are investments made to acquire a lasting interest by a resident entity in one economy in an enterprise resident in another economy. The purpose of the investor is to have a significant influence, an effective voice in the management of the enterprise. To operationalize this definition, the FIIS followed the benchmark definition of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which considers as direct investment enterprise an incorporated or unincorporated enterprise in which a direct investor who is resident in another economy owns ten percent or more of the ordinary shares or voting power (for incorporated enterprise) or the equivalent (for an unincorporated enterprise). The ten percent cut-off in equity is used to distinguish between direct and portfolio investments, which is not covered by the FIIS at present.
3. Since the Philippines is more of a recipient of foreign investments, the FIIS covers only inward foreign direct investments. Specifically, this includes foreign direct investments in Philippine corporations, partnerships and single proprietorships.
4. Foreign direct investment flows refer to the new or additional investments paid by a foreign entity to a resident enterprise in another country during the period. In the case of the Philippines, this covers: capital or equity contributions/remittances from abroad, reinvested earnings, technical fees and royalties converted to equity, bonds and other debts converted to equity and imports converted to equity. Specifically, the CQRS (Consolidated Quarterly Reporting System) will report on approved FDI flows, registered FDI flows and the balance of payments (BOP) FDI flows.
5. Approved foreign direct investments represent the amount of proposed contribution or share of foreigners to various projects in the country as approved and registered by the BOI, the PEZA, the SBMA and the CDC. Approved foreign investments do not represent actual investments generated but rather foreign investment commitments which may come in the near future. This consists of equity, loans and reinvested earnings. In the operationalization of computing for approved FDIs as approved and registered with the Investment Promotion Agencies (IPAs), all FDIs including those with less than 10 percent of the ordinary shares are included. The reason is that approved FDIs as rendered by the IPAs have long lasting interest unlike portfolio investments.
6. Approved FDIs in the Information and Communication Technology Sector (ICT) includes investment commitments in the manufacturing of ICT equipments, spare parts and accessories including professional, medical and scientific instruments as well as ICT services e.g., wholesale trade of computers, electronic parts and equipments; telecommunications; renting of computers and other office equipments; computer services and other related activities.
7. Registered FDIs only represent foreign equity investments or paid up capital and does not include intercompany loans. Hence, not all approved FDIs are translated into registered FDIs since the former consist of intercompany loans and reinvested earnings. In addition, capital inflows from approved FDIs are spread or expected to be fully implemented after five years or more, based on the experience of investment promotion agencies.
8. On the other hand, the BOP FDIs cover cash transactions on foreign direct investment flows that are coursed through the banking system. Machinery, equipment and reinvested earnings, which are not cash transactions are included if data are available.
Methodology and Sources of Data
1. The NSCB as the agency that coordinates all statistical matters in government has been tasked by the IAC-FDIS with the preparation of the CQRS. The CQRS covers actual and approved foreign direct investments.
2. The investment promotion agencies generate data on foreign investments monthly. These agencies show “project cost” in reflecting approved or committed investments. For purposes of the CQRS, the term approved investments is adopted. Not all of approved investments will materialize during the period. There is a gestation period between approval and actual investments.
3. To arrive at total approved investments, the reported project costs of BOI, PEZA, SBMA and CDC are summed up for the quarter.
4. Total balance of payments foreign direct investments is obtained from the Balance of Payments (BOP) tables compiled monthly by the BSP. The BOP provides the data framework on all external transactions of the national economy, in which FDI is one item. Conceptually, the FDI flows in the BOP are consistent with the IMF definition. Hence, these are taken as the global total of foreign investments inflow on a quarterly basis.
5. The SEC and BTRCP also report monthly foreign capital investments. SEC comes up with data on investments and number of non-FIA registered FDI corporations (foreign ownership is less than 40 percent) and FIA-registered corporations (40 percent and over foreign ownership), by country of investor and by industry. In the SEC, foreign investments refer to the foreign equity (paid-up) capital of the non-FIA and FIA registered corporations. It should be noted, however, that registration with SEC and BTRCP does not translate into actual flows as captured by the BOP of the BSP.
6. Hence, what are not reported at present are additional investments of existing FDI enterprises. SEC covers only that portion of existing FDI enterprises that apply for additional authorized capitalization.
7. The International Operations Department (IOD) of the BSP registers foreign direct investments in cash or in kind in any enterprise organized or existing under the laws of the Philippines. Registration of foreign investments with BSP is not mandatory but it gives foreign investors the authority to source foreign exchange from the local banking system to service capital repatriation and cash dividends/profits and other earnings accruing to BSP-registered investments. As there is currently no mandatory period within which to register these investments, there is a time lag between the registration with the BSP and the inflow of the investment funds or in the case of investment in kind, the receipt by investee firm of said investment. In some cases, this time lag could be a year or longer.
8. Total approved investments include all Filipino and foreign investments which has been granted approval by the promotion agencies, i.e., BOI, PEZA, CDC and SBMA.
9. Due to the cut-off periods on data processing adopted in the preparation of this report, revisions for the immediately preceding quarters may be done in each issue.
The Foreign Investments Information System
The Foreign Investments Information System (FIIS) was started in 1991 as a project 1_/ to develop an integrated approach for generating and reporting foreign direct investments (FDI) in the Philippines.
Statistics on FDIs are being reported/generated by a number of agencies that carry out functions relating to management and monitoring of and/or promotion for attracting foreign investments in the country, which has often resulted in inconsistent data generation and interpretation because of differences in concepts, definitions and reporting periods adopted by the concerned agencies.
With the objective of resolving this problem and other issues in the generation and reporting of foreign investment statistics, the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) created An ad hoc Inter-Agency Group (IAG) in 1991 to conduct a study for the implementation of the FIIS.
The IAG published its First Report of the FIIS Study in July 1996 based on available annual administrative data for 1991 and 1992. The report also recommended a system that will operationalize the concepts and methodologies for developing and compiling foreign direct investment statistics in the Philippines context. The report featured the results of the 1991-1992 estimates of stock of FDI, and the concepts, methodology, data system and institutional support needed to implement the FIIS.
Based on the recommendation in the FIIS Study, the NSCB created the Inter-Agency Committee on Foreign Direct Investments Statistics (IAC-FDIS) in September 1996 through NSCB Memorandum Order No. 1-96 to rationalize and integrate foreign investments data in all aspects including collection, processing and dissemination. The IAC-FDIS is now composed of:
|Board of Investments (BOI)||Co-Chair|
|Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas(BSP)||Member|
|Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)||Member|
|Bureau of Trade Regulation & Consumer
|Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA)||Member|
|Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA)||Member|
|Clark Development Corporation (CDC)||Member|
|National Economic and Development
|National Statistics Office (NSO)||Member|
The member agencies of the IACFDIS jointly implement the institutionalization of the FIIS. The IACFDIS is currently implementing the second component of the FIIS, the CQRS, which has been producing the quarterly Reports on Foreign Direct Investments in the Philippines since 1997. The CQRS operationalizes the integration and uniform reporting of quarterly data on foreign investment reported by the various concerned agencies. The quarterly Report on Foreign Direct Investments in the Philippines, which is approved by the IACFDIS, is released to the public upon submission to the President of the Philippines sixty days after the reference quarter.
Consolidated Quarterly Reporting System
The other two components of the FIIS are the Registry of Firms on Foreign Investments and the Annual Reporting System. These three components will later be integrated to complete the FIIS.
1_/ Initial funding came from cooperating agencies, i.e., NSCB, BOI, BSP, SEC and BTRCP. USAID funded the project starting in 1993.
Updated as of: 04 January 2007